Key Deference between Natural Selection and Artificial selection.
|Basis for Comparison||Natural selection||Artificial selection|
|Meaning||Natural selection involves the natural process of selection, favoring the fittest which is able to face all types of situations.||Artificial selection involves the artificial process where selection is done by favoring the desired characters in the new organisms.|
|Chances of survival||Chances of surviving increased.||Selection of characters is done artificially hence chances of surviving of new breed is at risk whether it is a plant, or animals or any other organism.|
|Process rate||Slow and long process.||Faster.|
|Controlled by||Controlled by nature.||Artificial selection is controlled by humans.|
|Performed on||Natural selection is performed on all types of organisms.||Artificial selection is processed on some selective organisms of humans desires.|
|Selection of traits||Selection is totally based on the adaptable character and the one who is able to cop up in all types of natural conditions.||Selection is done on the basis of required character.|
|Transformation||It transforms the entire population of a species.||It brings out the new variety of that species.|
|Type of selection||Natural selection.||Man-made selection.|
|Occurs in||It occurs in all kind of natural populations.||It usually occurs in domestic populations.|
|Examples||Darwin finches which are group of birds of 14 species of small birds, evolved from the same species of bird on the Galapagos Islands.||It is usually performed on pet animals or animals which are used for economical purposes.|
What is natural selection?
Natural selection, process that results in the adaptation of an organism to its environment by means of selectively reproducing changes in its genotype, or genetic constitution.
In natural selection, those variations in the genotype (the entire complex of genes inherited from both parents) that increase an organism’s chances of survival and procreation are preserved and multiplied from generation to generation at the expense of less advantageous variations.
Evolution often occurs as a consequence of this process. Natural selection may arise from differences in survival, in fertility, in rate of development, in mating success, or in any other aspect of the life cycle.
All such differences result in natural selection to the extent that they affect the number of progenies an organism leaves.
Gene frequencies tend to remain constant from generation to generation when disturbing factors are not present. Factors that disturb the natural equilibrium of gene frequencies include mutation, migration (or gene flow), random genetic drift, and natural selection.
A mutation is a spontaneous change in the gene frequency that takes place in a population and occurs at a low rate. Migration is a local change in gene frequency when an individual moves from one population to another and then interbreeds.
Random genetic drift is a change that takes place from one generation to another by a process of pure chance. Mutation, migration, and genetic drift alter gene frequencies without regard to whether such changes increase or decrease the likelihood of an organism surviving and reproducing in its environment. They are all random processes.
Natural selection moderates the disorganizing effects of these processes because it multiplies the incidence of beneficial mutations over the generations and eliminates harmful ones, since their carriers leave few or no descendants.
Natural selection enhances the preservation of a group of organisms that are best adjusted to the physical and biological conditions of their environment and may also result in their improvement in some cases.
Some characteristics, such as the male peacock’s tail, actually decrease the individual organism’s chance of survival. To explain such anomalies, Darwin posed a theory of “sexual selection.”
In contrast to features that result from natural selection, a structure produced by sexual selection results in an advantage in the competition for mates.
What is Artificial selection?
Artificial selection is done to enhance the quality of a trait, or whatever desirable characteristics we need in that trait. By taking an example we will be able to understand it much better.
Suppose we need to grow the flowering plant, with some special character of our desire. For this, we will cross breed of the desired characters of a plant and ultimately if the situations favor, it will result in a plant with new and required characters. Though being a fast process than natural selection, the chances of survival are lesser and the new ones get totally different from their native generations as well.
Thus, we can say that artificial selection doesn’t make a species stronger and fit for survival. This process is dangerous and is much in trend, due to the higher demands of good quality of fruits, vegetables, and pets such as cow, dog, buffalo.